The following is taken from Dr. Mark Carlotto’s book, The Martian Enigmas, A Closer Look.


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Mars Anomalies Research Chronology


Viking takes first picture (35A72) of the Face on Mars on July 25.

Walter Hain in Germany sees an image of the Face in a NASA film on December 15.


Vincent DiPietro finds picture of Face in NASA archives. DiP­ietro and Greg Molenaar find second image of Face (70A13).


DiPietro and Molenaar begin the process of image enhance­ment for the Face, including the development of the Starburst Pixel Interleave Technique (SPIT).
Walter Hain in Germany publishes WiT, vom Mars (We from Mars), a compilation of myth and fact about the planet which includes the suggestion that the Face may be


DiPietro and Molenaar publish Unusual Martian Surface Fea­tures. On June 16, DiPietro and Molenaar present their work at the 156th Meeting of the American Astronomical Society in College Park, Maryland.


Richard Hoagland meets DiPietro and Molenaar at the first Case for Mars conference in Boulder, Colorado in July.


Hoagland contacts DiPietro and Molenaar about a different subject, but on seeing more recent photographic enhance­ments, becomes interested in the Face.

Hoagland hypothesizes existence of City. Identifies Fortress and other pyramidal objects in City as well as smaller mound like objects. Notices that objects seem to be aligned and that the alignment may be solsticial.
Hoagland and anthropologist Randy Pozos organize Indepen­dent Mars Investigation computer conference during the sum­mer. Hoagland begins conference with first entry in December.


"Martian Chronicles" computer conference takes place during the first quarter of 1984. Participants include John Branden­burg, Lambert Dophin, Bill Beatty, and Jim Channon along with DiPietro, Molenaar, Hoagland, and Pozos. Last entry made by Hoagland in March.
Hoagland and Thomas Rautenberg at the University of Califor­nia at Berkeley discuss second parallel investigation (Mars In­vestigation Group).

John Brandenburg presents results of Independent Mars Inves­tigation at Case for Mars II conference in Boulder in July.
August issue of the magazine Soviet Life reports discovery of pyramids on Mars by Russian author, Vladimir Avinsky.

Discover magazine reports on Case for Mars II conference in September issue-no mention of Independent Mars Investi­gation paper. In same issue Carl Sagan proposes joint U.S.! Soviet mission to Mars and mentions "enigmatic landforms" on Mars.

In the fall, Rautenberg, economist David Webb, Carl Sagan, and Louis Friedman (Executive Director of The Planetary So­ciety) meet in Washington. Friedman refuses to look at images of the Face. Off to the side, Sagan tells Webb, "These are very interesting, but if anyone asks me I will deny that the meeting took place."


In January, Hoagland and Sagan discuss Mars anomalies at National Academy of Sciences meeting in Washington. Sagan offers to review any material on the subject and anticipates ex­changing papers in the literature.
In February, Mark Carlotto contacts Rautenberg and sets up meeting. Rautenberg provides Carlotto a copy of Viking data tapes.

Series of newspaper articles come out critical of the Indepen­dent Mars Investigation during the spring. University of Cali­fornia withdraws sponsorship of Mars Investigation Group.
On June 2, Sagan publishes article entitled: "The Man in the Moon" in Parade Magazine. Article includes a colorized ver­sion of Viking frame 70A13 in which the crucial shadows are . obscured by the added color. Sagan is highly critical of Face and investigators-none of which are mentioned by name.

Interviews with Sagan and others at "Steps to Mars" confer­ence held mid July in Washington indicate growing resistance to Mars anomalies in the planetary community.


On July 23, 1986, DiPietro speaks with Sagan at the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, D.C. DiPietro shows pic­tures to Sagan of the enhancements of the face with the eye­ball detail. DiPietro agrees to send photos to Sagan.
Carlotto sends Sagan draft of paper on 3-D analys s of Face. Carlotto and Sagan exchange letters late in the summer. The paper which is entitled: "Digital Imagery Analysis of Unusual

Martian Surface Features" is subsequently submitted to the planetary science journal Icarus.
Brian O'Leary organizes Mars Anomalies Research Society. Members include Brandenburg, Carlotto, DiPietro, Webb, and others.

Hoagland publishes "The Curious Case of the Humanoid Face on Mars" in the November issue of Analog magazine.

Two books published in 1986: The Face on Mars by Randy Pozos, and Planetary Mysteries by Richard Grossinger.


Early in February, O'Leary submits paper to Icarus entitled: "Comments on Imagery of the Face on Mars and Nearby Objects."

In mid March, Carlotto's paper is rejected by Icarus on the grounds that it is "not of sufficient scientific interest."
O'Leary's paper is also rejected by Icarus on similar grounds. This is the same journal that previously published eleven pa­pers by O'Leary, none of which had ever been rejected.

Carlotto revIses paper and submits to the journal Applied Op­tics in September.

Hoagland's book The Monuments of Mars is published in 1987.


Carlotto's paper is accepted and published in the May 15 issue of Applied Optics.
Russia launches Phobos I and Phobos II probes to Mars in July. Contact lost with Phobos I en route to Mars.

Following press conference at National Press Club in Wash­ington D.C., popular articles about the Face appear in New Scientist (July 7) and Newsweek (July 25).

Over the summer, Erol Torun performs geomorphological analysis of D&M pyramid and concludes that it could not have been formed by any known geological process on Mars. Also develops a geometrical model of the D&M in which are embedded numerous universal mathematical constants.

Hoagland subsequently shows these same universal constants are reflected in relationships between the D&M and other ob­jects in the Cydonia complex and that latitude of the D&M on Mars can be expressed in terms of the same constants.
In December, Hoagland, Carlotta, and Torun present research results to audience at Goddard Space Center in Maryland.

On December 18, a new paper entitled: "A Method for Search­ing for Artificial Objects on Planetary Surfaces" describing fractal analysis of the Face is submitted to the journal Nature.
Less than two weeks later the paper is returned, the editor re­fusing to review it.


In March erroneous radio transmissions send Phobos II into an uncontrolled spin as it approached the tiny Martian moon.

Fractal paper is submitted to the Journal of the BrHish Inter­planetary Society OBIS) at the end of March.
Hoagland, Carlotta, and Torun illeet with Congressman Robert A. Roe, Chairman of the House of Representative Committee on Science, Space, and Technology in April.


Fractal paper is accepted and published in May issue of JBIS. Revised version of O'Leary paper that was rejected by Icarus entitled: "Analysis of Images of the Face on Mars and Possible Intelligent Origin" also appeared in same issue.

In July Sagan writes Carlotto to thank him for video footage used in a revised version of his "Cosmos" series.


Brandenberg, DiPietro and Molenaar publish "The Cydonian Hypothesis" in the spring issue of the Journal of Scientific Ex­ploration in where they hypothesize the Face was built by in­digenous Martians.
Hoagland suggests the geometry of the D&M pyramid and its external relations to other nearby objects are based on tetrahe­dral geometry.

Carlotto's book The Martian Enigmas is published in 1991.


Mars Observer launched on September 25.
Prompted by press coverage of the Face, Professor Stanley V. McDaniel begins an independent evaluation of the methodol­ogy used by researchers studying the Martian features, and of NASA's response to their research.


Invited paper by Carlotto entitled "Digital image analysis of possible extraterrestrial artifacts on Mars" appears in April issue of the journal Digital Signal Processing.
Don Ecker, director of research for UFO magazine, locates doc­ument produced by The Brookings Institution in early 1960s that suggests scientists may consider suppressing the discov­ery of extraterrestrial life or artifacts. Ecker relays this infor­mation to Hoagland, who relays it in turn to McDaniel for inclusion in his report.

Mars Observer is lost in the vicinity of Mars on August 21. This together with loss of Mars Observer prompts accusations by Hoagland that NASA is covering up the discovery of artifi­cial structures on Mars.

Mars researchers meet in September in Cody Wyoming at con­ference organized by Tom and Cynthia Fell.

McDaniel completes his analysis of the independent Mars in­vestigations as well as NASA's conduct in the matter. His find­ings are published in The McDaniel Report late in 1993.


McDaniel coordinates the formation of the Society for Plane­tary SETI research (SPSR) to study the Mars anomalies. Mem­bers are drawn from a variety of academic and professional fields.

Physicist Horace W. Crater begins study of small mound for­mations at Cydonia. Geologists James Erjavec and Ronald Nicks begin development of a geological map of the Cydonia region.


Initial results of Crater's analysis of the mound formations in­dicate the presence of a radical statistical anomaly arising from the non-random distribution of the mounds.

In two papers privately distributed within the SPSR, "Geo­metric Solution to the Pentad" and "Geometric Construction of the Square Root 2 rectangle," McDaniel proposes a regular grid pattern accounting for the geometric distribution of the mounds.

In June, McDaniel and Crater presented two talks at the 14th meeting of the Society for Scientific Exploration in Hunting­ton Beach, California. McDaniel's talk "Artificial Structures on Mars" summarized Mars anomalies research to date. Crater's talk "A Statistical Study of Angular Placements of Features on Mars" presented an analysis of a number of small mound-like objects in the City.


In May, Carlotto and archaeologist Jim Strange from the Uni­versity of South Florida presented talks at the 15th meeting of the Society for Scientific Exploration in Charlottesville, Virginia. Carlotto's talk "Do Certain Martian Surface Features Suggest an Extraterrestrial Hypothesis?" presented probabilis­tic analysis of existin evidence for artificiality along with several new pieces of evidence based on a comparative analy­sis of several of the features. Strange's talk "Can Archaeologi­cal Method Apply to 'Planetary SET!?" examined the randomness of the mounds studied by Crater and McDaniel and Torun's geometirical model of the D&M pYramid.
Helmut Lammer publishes a paper, "Atmospheric Mass Loss on Mars and the Consequences for the Cydonian Hypothesis and Early Martian I!.ife-Forms" i,n the autumn issue of the Journal of Scientific Exploration. Paper argues against Bran­denburg's hy,pothesis that the Face and other structures on Mars were built oy native Martians.

Sagan publishes his last book, Demon Haunted World. Al­though highly skeptical of the Mars anomalies, he states that the hypothesis can be tested and so opens up the subject to scientific inquiry.
Pathfinder and Mars Global Surveyor are launched in the fall.

Russians launch Mars 96 Orbiter which fails to reach Earth orbit.


Van Flandern publishes a preprint of "New Evidence of Arti­ficiality at Cydonia on Mars", showing that the Face was located close to the old Martian equator and had a "face­upright" orientation (major axis oriented north-south) with respect to it. Van Flandern finds this fact consistent with his exploded planet hypothesis, which holds that Mars was a moon of a larger planet since exploded. The Face would have been prominent on the Mars equator as seen from such a planet.
Carlotto's paper "Evidence .in Support of the Hypothesis that Certain Objects on Mars are Artificial in Origin" is published by the Journal of Scientific Exploration. Paper analyzes all of the evidence to date within a prosabilistic framework show­ing it to satisfy Sagan's criterion for "extraordinary evidence."



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